5. Cost Estimation
The capital cost for a construction project includes the expenses related to the inital establishment of the facility:
It is important for design professionals and construction managers to realize that while the construction cost may be the single largest component of the capital cost, other cost components are not insignificant. For example, land acquisition costs are a major expenditure for building construction in high-density urban areas, and construction financing costs can reach the same order of magnitude as the construction cost in large projects such as the construction of nuclear power plants.
From the owner's perspective, it is equally important to estimate the corresponding operation and maintenance cost of each alternative for a proposed facility in order to analyze the life cycle costs. The large expenditures needed for facility maintenance, especially for publicly owned infrastructure, are reminders of the neglect in the past to consider fully the implications of operation and maintenance cost in the design stage.
In this chapter, we shall focus on the estimation of construction cost, with only occasional reference to other cost components. In Chapter 6, we shall deal with the economic evaluation of a constructed facility on the basis of both the capital cost and the operation and maintenance cost in the life cycle of the facility. It is at this stage that tradeoffs between operating and capital costs can be analyzed.
Example 5-1: Energy project resource demands 
The resources demands for three types of major energy projects investigated during the energy crisis in the 1970's are shown in Table 5-1. These projects are: (1) an oil shale project with a capacity of 50,000 barrels of oil product per day; (2) a coal gasification project that makes gas with a heating value of 320 billions of British thermal units per day, or equivalent to about 50,000 barrels of oil product per day; and (3) a tar sand project with a capacity of 150,000 barrels of oil product per day.
5.2 Approaches to Cost EstimationCost estimating is one of the most important steps in project management. A cost estimate establishes the base line of the project cost at different stages of development of the project. A cost estimate at a given stage of project development represents a prediction provided by the cost engineer or estimator on the basis of available data. According to the American Association of Cost Engineers, cost engineering is defined as that area of engineering practice where engineering judgment and experience are utilized in the application of scientific principles and techniques to the problem of cost estimation, cost control and profitability.
Virtually all cost estimation is performed according to one or some combination of the following basic approaches:
Production function. In microeconomics, the relationship between the output of a process and the necessary resources is referred to as the production function. In construction, the production function may be expressed by the relationship between the volume of construction and a factor of production such as labor or capital. A production function relates the amount or volume of output to the various inputs of labor, material and equipment. For example, the amount of output Q may be derived as a function of various input factors x1, x2, ..., xn by means of mathematical and/or statistical methods. Thus, for a specified level of output, we may attempt to find a set of values for the input factors so as to minimize the production cost. The relationship between the size of a building project (expressed in square feet) to the input labor (expressed in labor hours per square foot) is an example of a production function for construction. Several such production functions are shown in Figure 3-3 of Chapter 3.
Empirical cost inference. Empirical estimation of cost functions requires statistical techniques which relate the cost of constructing or operating a facility to a few important characteristics or attributes of the system. The role of statistical inference is to estimate the best parameter values or constants in an assumed cost function. Usually, this is accomplished by means of regression analysis techniques.
Unit costs for bill of quantities. A unit cost is assigned to each of the facility components or tasks as represented by the bill of quantities. The total cost is the summation of the products of the quantities multiplied by the corresponding unit costs. The unit cost method is straightforward in principle but quite laborious in application. The initial step is to break down or disaggregate a process into a number of tasks. Collectively, these tasks must be completed for the construction of a facility. Once these tasks are defined and quantities representing these tasks are assessed, a unit cost is assigned to each and then the total cost is determined by summing the costs incurred in each task. The level of detail in decomposing into tasks will vary considerably from one estimate to another.
Allocation of joint costs. Allocations of cost from existing accounts may be used to develop a cost function of an operation. The basic idea in this method is that each expenditure item can be assigned to particular characteristics of the operation. Ideally, the allocation of joint costs should be causally related to the category of basic costs in an allocation process. In many instances, however, a causal relationship between the allocation factor and the cost item cannot be identified or may not exist. For example, in construction projects, the accounts for basic costs may be classified according to (1) labor, (2) material, (3) construction equipment, (4) construction supervision, and (5) general office overhead. These basic costs may then be allocated proportionally to various tasks which are subdivisions of a project.
5.3 Types of Construction Cost EstimatesConstruction cost constitutes only a fraction, though a substantial fraction, of the total project cost. However, it is the part of the cost under the control of the construction project manager. The required levels of accuracy of construction cost estimates vary at different stages of project development, ranging from ball park figures in the early stage to fairly reliable figures for budget control prior to construction. Since design decisions made at the beginning stage of a project life cycle are more tentative than those made at a later stage, the cost estimates made at the earlier stage are expected to be less accurate. Generally, the accuracy of a cost estimate will reflect the information available at the time of estimation.
Construction cost estimates may be viewed from different perspectives because of different institutional requirements. In spite of the many types of cost estimates used at different stages of a project, cost estimates can best be classified into three major categories according to their functions. A construction cost estimate serves one of the three basic functions: design, bid and control. For establishing the financing of a project, either a design estimate or a bid estimate is used.
Design EstimatesIn the planning and design stages of a project, various design estimates reflect the progress of the design. At the very early stage, the screening estimate or order of magnitude estimate is usually made before the facility is designed, and must therefore rely on the cost data of similar facilities built in the past. A preliminary estimate or conceptual estimate is based on the conceptual design of the facility at the state when the basic technologies for the design are known. The detailed estimate or definitive estimate is made when the scope of work is clearly defined and the detailed design is in progress so that the essential features of the facility are identifiable. The engineer's estimate is based on the completed plans and specifications when they are ready for the owner to solicit bids from construction contractors. In preparing these estimates, the design professional will include expected amounts for contractors' overhead and profits.
The costs associated with a facility may be decomposed into a hierarchy of levels that are appropriate for the purpose of cost estimation. The level of detail in decomposing the facility into tasks depends on the type of cost estimate to be prepared. For conceptual estimates, for example, the level of detail in defining tasks is quite coarse; for detailed estimates, the level of detail can be quite fine.
As an example, consider the cost estimates for a proposed bridge across a river. A screening estimate is made for each of the potential alternatives, such as a tied arch bridge or a cantilever truss bridge. As the bridge type is selected, e.g. the technology is chosen to be a tied arch bridge instead of some new bridge form, a preliminary estimate is made on the basis of the layout of the selected bridge form on the basis of the preliminary or conceptual design. When the detailed design has progressed to a point when the essential details are known, a detailed estimate is made on the basis of the well defined scope of the project. When the detailed plans and specifications are completed, an engineer's estimate can be made on the basis of items and quantities of work.
Bid EstimatesThe contractor's bid estimates often reflect the desire of the contractor to secure the job as well as the estimating tools at its disposal. Some contractors have well established cost estimating procedures while others do not. Since only the lowest bidder will be the winner of the contract in most bidding contests, any effort devoted to cost estimating is a loss to the contractor who is not a successful bidder. Consequently, the contractor may put in the least amount of possible effort for making a cost estimate if it believes that its chance of success is not high.
If a general contractor intends to use subcontractors in the construction of a facility, it may solicit price quotations for various tasks to be subcontracted to specialty subcontractors. Thus, the general subcontractor will shift the burden of cost estimating to subcontractors. If all or part of the construction is to be undertaken by the general contractor, a bid estimate may be prepared on the basis of the quantity takeoffs from the plans provided by the owner or on the basis of the construction procedures devised by the contractor for implementing the project. For example, the cost of a footing of a certain type and size may be found in commercial publications on cost data which can be used to facilitate cost estimates from quantity takeoffs. However, the contractor may want to assess the actual cost of construction by considering the actual construction procedures to be used and the associated costs if the project is deemed to be different from typical designs. Hence, items such as labor, material and equipment needed to perform various tasks may be used as parameters for the cost estimates.
Control EstimatesBoth the owner and the contractor must adopt some base line for cost control during the construction. For the owner, a budget estimate must be adopted early enough for planning long term financing of the facility. Consequently, the detailed estimate is often used as the budget estimate since it is sufficient definitive to reflect the project scope and is available long before the engineer's estimate. As the work progresses, the budgeted cost must be revised periodically to reflect the estimated cost to completion. A revised estimated cost is necessary either because of change orders initiated by the owner or due to unexpected cost overruns or savings.
For the contractor, the bid estimate is usually regarded as the budget estimate, which will be used for control purposes as well as for planning construction financing. The budgeted cost should also be updated periodically to reflect the estimated cost to completion as well as to insure adequate cash flows for the completion of the project.
Example 5-2: Screening estimate of a grouting seal beneath a landfill 
One of the methods of isolating a landfill from groundwater is to create a bowl-shaped bottom seal beneath the site as shown in Figure 5-0. The seal is constructed by pumping or pressure-injecting grout under the existing landfill. Holes are bored at regular intervals throughout the landfill for this purpose and the grout tubes are extended from the surface to the bottom of the landfill. A layer of soil at a minimum of 5 ft. thick is left between the grouted material and the landfill contents to allow for irregularities in the bottom of the landfill. The grout liner can be between 4 and 6 feet thick. A typical material would be Portland cement grout pumped under pressure through tubes to fill voids in the soil. This grout would then harden into a permanent, impermeable liner.Example 5-3: Example of engineer's estimate and contractors' bids
The engineer's estimate for a project involving 14 miles of Interstate 70 roadway in Utah was $20,950,859. Bids were submitted on March 10, 1987, for completing the project within 320 working days. The three low bidders were:It was astounding that the winning bid was 32% below the engineer's estimate. Even the third lowest bidder was 13% below the engineer's estimate for this project. The disparity in pricing can be attributed either to the very conservative estimate of the engineer in the Utah Department of Transportation or to area contractors who are hungrier than usual to win jobs.
5.4 Effects of Scale on Construction CostScreening cost estimates are often based on a single variable representing the capacity or some physical measure of the design such as floor area in buildings, length of highways, volume of storage bins and production volumes of processing plants. Costs do not always vary linearly with respect to different facility sizes. Typically, scale economies or diseconomies exist. If the average cost per unit of capacity is declining, then scale economies exist. Conversely, scale diseconomies exist if average costs increase with greater size. Empirical data are sought to establish the economies of scale for various types of facility, if they exist, in order to take advantage of lower costs per unit of capacity.
Let x be a variable representing the facility capacity, and y be the resulting construction cost. Then, a linear cost relationship can be expressed in the form:
Figure 5-2: Linear Cost Relationship with Economies of Scale
A nonlinear cost relationship between the facility capacity x and construction
cost y can often be represented in the form:
Example 5-4: Determination of m for the exponential rule
The empirical cost data from a number of sewage treatment plants are plotted on a log-log scale for ln(Q/Qn) and ln(y/yn) and a linear relationship between these logarithmic ratios is shown in Figure 5-4. For (Q/Qn) = 1 or ln(Q/Qn) = 0, ln(y/yn) = 0; and for Q/Qn = 2 or ln(Q/Qn) = 0.301, ln(y/yn) = 0.1765. Since m is the slope of the line in the figure, it can be determined from the geometric relation as follows:Example 5-5: Cost exponents for water and wastewater treatment plantsFor ln(y/yn) = 0.1765, y/yn = 1.5, while the corresponding value of Q/Qn is 2. In words, for m = 0.585, the cost of a plant increases only 1.5 times when the capacity is doubled.
The magnitude of the cost exponent m in the exponential rule provides a simple measure of the economy of scale associated with building extra capacity for future growth and system reliability for the present in the design of treatment plants. When m is small, there is considerable incentive to provide extra capacity since scale economies exist as illustrated in Figure 5-3. When m is close to 1, the cost is directly proportional to the design capacity. The value of m tends to increase as the number of duplicate units in a system increases. The values of m for several types of treatment plants with different plant components derived from statistical correlation of actual construction costs are shown in Table 5-3.
Example 5-6: Cost data for the exponential rule
The exponential rule as represented by Equation (5.4) can be expressed in a different form as:whereIf m and K are known for a given type of facility, then the cost y for a proposed new facility of specified capacity Q can be readily computed.
The estimated values of K and m for various water and sewage treatment plant components are shown in Table 5-4. The K values are based on 1968 dollars. The range of data from which the K and m values are derived in the primary sources should be observed in order to use them in making cost estimates.
As an example, take K = $399 and m = 0.60 for a primary sedimentation component in Table 5-4. For a proposed new plant with the primary sedimentation process having a capacity of 15,000 sq. ft., the estimated cost (in 1968 dollars) is:
y = ($399)(15,000)0.60 = $128,000.Back to top
5.5 Unit Cost Method of EstimationIf the design technology for a facility has been specified, the project can be decomposed into elements at various levels of detail for the purpose of cost estimation. The unit cost for each element in the bill of quantities must be assessed in order to compute the total construction cost. This concept is applicable to both design estimates and bid estimates, although different elements may be selected in the decomposition.
For design estimates, the unit cost method is commonly used when the project is decomposed into elements at various levels of a hierarchy as follows:
Simple Unit Cost FormulaSuppose that a project is decomposed into n elements for cost estimation. Let Qi be the quantity of the ith element and ui be the corresponding unit cost. Then, the total cost of the project is given by:
Factored Estimate FormulaA special application of the unit cost method is the "factored estimate" commonly used in process industries. Usually, an industrial process requires several major equipment components such as furnaces, towers drums and pump in a chemical processing plant, plus ancillary items such as piping, valves and electrical elements. The total cost of a project is dominated by the costs of purchasing and installing the major equipment components and their ancillary items. Let Ci be the purchase cost of a major equipment component i and fi be a factor accounting for the cost of ancillary items needed for the installation of this equipment component i. Then, the total cost of a project is estimated by:
Formula Based on Labor, Material and EquipmentConsider the simple case for which costs of labor, material and equipment are assigned to all tasks. Suppose that a project is decomposed into n tasks. Let Qi be the quantity of work for task i, Mi be the unit material cost of task i, Ei be the unit equipment rate for task i, Li be the units of labor required per unit of Qi, and Wi be the wage rate associated with Li. In this case, the total cost y is:
Example 5-7: Decomposition of a building foundation into design and construction elements.
The concept of decomposition is illustrated by the example of estimating the costs of a building foundation excluding excavation as shown in Table 5-5 in which the decomposed design elements are shown on horizontal lines and the decomposed contract elements are shown in vertical columns. For a design estimate, the decomposition of the project into footings, foundation walls and elevator pit is preferred since the designer can easily keep track of these design elements; however, for a bid estimate, the decomposition of the project into formwork, reinforcing bars and concrete may be preferred since the contractor can get quotations of such contract items more conveniently from specialty subcontractors.
Example 5-8: Cost estimate using labor, material and equipment rates.
For the given quantities of work Qi for the concrete foundation of a building and the labor, material and equipment rates in Table 5-6, the cost estimate is computed on the basis of Equation (5.9). The result is tabulated in the last column of the same table.
5.6 Methods for Allocation of Joint CostsThe principle of allocating joint costs to various elements in a project is often used in cost estimating. Because of the difficulty in establishing casual relationship between each element and its associated cost, the joint costs are often prorated in proportion to the basic costs for various elements.
One common application is found in the allocation of field supervision cost among the basic costs of various elements based on labor, material and equipment costs, and the allocation of the general overhead cost to various elements according to the basic and field supervision cost. Suppose that a project is decomposed into n tasks. Let y be the total basic cost for the project and yi be the total basic cost for task i. If F is the total field supervision cost and Fi is the proration of that cost to task i, then a typical proportional allocation is:
Example 5-9: Prorated costs for field supervision and office overhead
If the field supervision cost is $13,245 for the project in Table 5-6 (Example 5-8) with a total direct cost of $88,300, find the prorated field supervision costs for various elements of the project. Furthermore, if the general office overhead charged to the project is 4% of the direct field cost which is the sum of basic costs and field supervision cost, find the prorated general office overhead costs for various elements of the project.
Example 5-10: A standard cost report for allocating overhead
The reliance on labor expenses as a means of allocating overhead burdens in typical management accounting systems can be illustrated by the example of a particular product's standard cost sheet.  Table 5-8 is an actual product's standard cost sheet of a company following the procedure of using overhead burden rates assessed per direct labor hour. The material and labor costs for manufacturing a type of valve were estimated from engineering studies and from current material and labor prices. These amounts are summarized in Columns 2 and 3 of Table 5-8. The overhead costs shown in Column 4 of Table 5-8 were obtained by allocating the expenses of several departments to the various products manufactured in these departments in proportion to the labor cost. As shown in the last line of the table, the material cost represents 29% of the total cost, while labor costs are 11% of the total cost. The allocated overhead cost constitutes 60% of the total cost. Even though material costs exceed labor costs, only the labor costs are used in allocating overhead. Although this type of allocation method is common in industry, the arbitrary allocation of joint costs introduces unintended cross subsidies among products and may produce adverse consequences on sales and profits. For example, a particular type of part may incur few overhead expenses in practice, but this phenomenon would not be reflected in the standard cost report.
5.7 Historical Cost DataPreparing cost estimates normally requires the use of historical data on construction costs. Historical cost data will be useful for cost estimation only if they are collected and organized in a way that is compatible with future applications. Organizations which are engaged in cost estimation continually should keep a file for their own use. The information must be updated with respect to changes that will inevitably occur. The format of cost data, such as unit costs for various items, should be organized according to the current standard of usage in the organization.
Construction cost data are published in various forms by a number of organizations. These publications are useful as references for comparison. Basically, the following types of information are available:
Since the future prices of constructed facilities are influenced by many uncertain factors, it is important to recognize that this risk must be borne to some degree by all parties involved, i.e., the owner, the design professionals, the construction contractors, and the financing institution. It is to the best interest of all parties that the risk sharing scheme implicit in the design/construct process adopted by the owner is fully understood by all. When inflation adjustment provisions have very different risk implications to various parties, the price level changes will also be treated differently for various situations. Back to top
5.8 Cost IndicesSince historical cost data are often used in making cost estimates, it is important to note the price level changes over time. Trends in price changes can also serve as a basis for forecasting future costs. The input price indices of labor and/or material reflect the price level changes of such input components of construction; the output price indices, where available, reflect the price level changes of the completed facilities, thus to some degree also measuring the productivity of construction.
A price index is a weighted aggregate measure of constant quantities of goods and services selected for the package. The price index at a subsequent year represents a proportionate change in the same weighted aggregate measure because of changes in prices. Let lt be the price index in year t, and lt+1 be the price index in the following year t+1. Then, the percent change in price index for year t+1 is:
The best-known indicators of general price changes are the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) deflators compiled periodically by the U.S. Department of Commerce, and the consumer price index (CPI) compiled periodically by the U.S. Department of Labor. They are widely used as broad gauges of the changes in production costs and in consumer prices for essential goods and services. Special price indices related to construction are also collected by industry sources since some input factors for construction and the outputs from construction may disproportionately outpace or fall behind the general price indices. Examples of special price indices for construction input factors are the wholesale Building Material Price and Building Trades Union Wages, both compiled by the U.S. Department of Labor. In addition, the construction cost index and the building cost index are reported periodically in the Engineering News-Record (ENR). Both ENR cost indices measure the effects of wage rate and material price trends, but they are not adjusted for productivity, efficiency, competitive conditions, or technology changes. Consequently, all these indices measure only the price changes of respective construction input factors as represented by constant quantities of material and/or labor. On the other hand, the price indices of various types of completed facilities reflect the price changes of construction output including all pertinent factors in the construction process. The building construction output indices compiled by Turner Construction Company and Handy-Whitman Utilities are compiled in the U.S. Statistical Abstracts published each year.
Figure 5-7 and Table 5-9 show a variety of United States indices, including
the Gross National Product (GNP) price deflator, the ENR building index,
the Handy Whitman Utilities Buildings, and the Turner Construction Company
Building Cost Index from 1970 to 1998, using 1992 as the base year with
an index of 100.
Figure 5-7 Trends for US price indices.
Figure 5-8 Price and cost indices for construction.
Since construction costs vary in different regions of the United States and in all parts of the world, locational indices showing the construction cost at a specific location relative to the national trend are useful for cost estimation. ENR publishes periodically the indices of local construction costs at the major cities in different regions of the United States as percentages of local to national costs.
When the inflation rate is relatively small, i.e., less than 10%, it is convenient to select a single price index to measure the inflationary conditions in construction and thus to deal only with a single set of price change rates in forecasting. Let jt be the price change rate in year t+1 over the price in year t. If the base year is denoted as year 0 (t=0), then the price change rates at years 1,2,...t are j1,j2,...jt, respectively. Let At be the cost in year t expressed in base-year dollars and At' be the cost in year t expressed in then-current dollars. Then:
Future forecasts of costs will be uncertain: the actual expenses may be much lower or much higher than those forecasted. This uncertainty arises from technological changes, changes in relative prices, inaccurate forecasts of underlying socioeconomic conditions, analytical errors, and other factors. For the purpose of forecasting, it is often sufficient to project the trend of future prices by using a constant rate j for price changes in each year over a period of t years, then
Example 5-12: Changes in highway and building costs
Table 5-10 shows the change of standard highway costs from 1940 to 1980, and Table 5-11 shows the change of residential building costs from 1970 to 1980. For these series, the quality of the finished product was held roughly equivalent. In each case, the rate of cost increase was substantially above the rate of inflation after 1970. Indeed, the real cost increase between 1970 and 1980 was in excess of three percent per year in both cases. However, these data also show some cause for optimism. For the case of the standard highway, real cost decreases took place in the period from l940 to l980. Unfortunately, comparable indices of outputs are not being compiled on a nationwide basis for other types of construction.
5.9 Applications of Cost Indices to EstimatingIn the screening estimate of a new facility, a single parameter is often used to describe a cost function. For example, the cost of a power plant is a function of electricity generating capacity expressed in megawatts, or the cost of a sewage treatment plant as a function of waste flow expressed in million gallons per day.
The general conditions for the application of the single parameter cost function for screening estimates are:
Example 5-13: Screening estimate for a refinery
The total construction cost of a refinery with a production capacity of 200,000 bbl/day in Gary, Indiana, completed in 1981 was $100 million. It is proposed that a similar refinery with a production capacity of 300,000 bbl/day be built in Los Angeles, California, for completion in 1983. For the additional information given below, make an order of magnitude estimate of the cost of the proposed plant.Example 5-14: Conceptual estimate for a chemical processing plant
In making a preliminary estimate of a chemical processing plant, several major types of equipment are the most significant parameters in affecting the installation cost. The cost of piping and other ancillary items for each type of equipment can often be expressed as a percentage of that type of equipment for a given capacity. The standard costs for the major equipment types for two plants with different daily production capacities in 1972 are as shown in Table 5-12. It has been established that the installation cost of all equipment for a plant with daily production capacity between 100,000 bbl and 400,000 bbl can best be estimated by using linear interpolation of the standard data.Back to top
5.10 Estimate Based on Engineer's List of QuantitiesThe engineer's estimate is based on a list of items and the associated quantities from which the total construction cost is derived. This same list is also made available to the bidders if unit prices of the items on the list are also solicited from the bidders. Thus, the itemized costs submitted by the winning contractor may be used as the starting point for budget control.
In general, the progress payments to the contractor are based on the units of work completed and the corresponding unit prices of the work items on the list. Hence, the estimate based on the engineers' list of quanitities for various work items essentially defines the level of detail to which subsequent measures of progress for the project will be made.
Example 5-15: Bid estimate based on engineer's list of quantities
Using the unit prices in the bid of contractor 1 for the quantitites specified by the engineer in Table 5-2 (Example 5-3), we can compute the total bid price of contractor 1 for the roadway project. The itemized costs for various work items as well as the total bid price are shown in Table 5-14.
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5.11 Allocation of Construction Costs Over TimeSince construction costs are incurred over the entire construction phase of a project, it is often necessary to determine the amounts to be spent in various periods to derive the cash flow profile, especially for large projects with long durations. Consequently, it is important to examine the percentage of work expected to be completed at various time periods to which the costs would be charged. More accurate estimates may be accomplished once the project is scheduled as described in Chapter 10, but some rough estimate of the cash flow may be required prior to this time.
Consider the basic problem in determining the percentage of work completed during construction. One common method of estimating percentage of completion is based on the amount of money spent relative to the total amount budgeted for the entire project. This method has the obvious drawback in assuming that the amount of money spent has been used efficiently for production. A more reliable method is based on the concept of value of work completed which is defined as the product of the budgeted labor hours per unit of production and the actual number of production units completed, and is expressed in budgeted labor hours for the work completed. Then, the percentage of completion at any stage is the ratio of the value of work completed to date and the value of work to be completed for the entire project. Regardless of the method of measurement, it is informative to understand the trend of work progress during construction for evaluation and control.
In general, the work on a construction project progresses gradually from
the time of mobilization until it reaches a plateau; then the work slows
down gradually and finally stops at the time of completion. The rate of
work done during various time periods (expressed in the percentage of
project cost per unit time) is shown schematically in Figure 5-9 in which
ten time periods have been assumed. The solid line A represents the case
in which the rate of work is zero at time t = 0 and increases linearly
to 12.5% of project cost at t = 2, while the rate begins to decrease from
12.5% at t = 8 to 0% at t = 10. The dotted line B represents the case
of rapid mobilization by reaching 12.5% of project cost at t = 1 while
beginning to decrease from 12.5% at t = 7 to 0% at t = 10. The dash line
C represents the case of slow mobilization by reaching 12.5% of project
cost at t = 3 while beginning to decrease from 12.5% at t = 9 to 0% at
t = 10.
The value of work completed at a given time (expressed as a cumulative
percentage of project cost) is shown schematically in Figure 5-10. In
each case (A, B or C), the value of work completed can be represented
by an "S-shaped" curve. The effects of rapid mobilization and slow mobilization
are indicated by the positions of curves B and C relative to curve A,
While the curves shown in Figures 5-9 and 5-10 represent highly idealized cases, they do suggest the latitude for adjusting the schedules for various activities in a project. While the rate of work progress may be changed quite drastically within a single period, such as the change from rapid mobilization to a slow mobilization in periods 1, 2 and 3 in Figure 5-9, the effect on the value of work completed over time will diminish in significance as indicated by the cumulative percentages for later periods in Figure 5-10. Thus, adjustment of the scheduling of some activities may improve the utilization of labor, material and equipment, and any delay caused by such adjustments for individual activities is not likely to cause problems for the eventual progress toward the completion of a project.
In addition to the speed of resource mobilization, another important consideration is the overall duration of a project and the amount of resources applied. Various strategies may be applied to shorten the overall duration of a project such as overlapping design and construction activities (as described in Chapter 2) or increasing the peak amounts of labor and equipment working on a site. However, spatial, managerial and technical factors will typically place a minimum limit on the project duration or cause costs to escalate with shorter durations.
Example 5-16: Calculation of Value of Work Completed
From the area of work progress in Figure 5-9, the value of work completed at any point in Figure 5-10 can be derived by noting the area under the curve up to that point in Figure 5-9. The result for t = 0 through t = 10 is shown in Table 5-15 and plotted in Figure 5-10.
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5.12 Computer Aided Cost EstimationNumerous computer aided cost estimation software systems are now available. These range in sophistication from simple spreadsheet calculation software to integrated systems involving design and price negotiation over the Internet. While this software involves costs for purchase, maintenance, training and computer hardware, some significant efficiencies often result. In particular, cost estimates may be prepared more rapidly and with less effort.
Some of the common features of computer aided cost estimation software include:
5.13 Estimation of Operating CostsIn order to analyze the life cycle costs of a proposed facility, it is necessary to estimate the operation and maintenance costs over time after the start up of the facility. The stream of operating costs over the life of the facility depends upon subsequent maintenance policies and facility use. In particular, the magnitude of routine maintenance costs will be reduced if the facility undergoes periodic repairs and rehabilitation at periodic intervals.
Since the tradeoff between the capital cost and the operating cost is an essential part of the economic evaluation of a facility, the operating cost is viewed not as a separate entity, but as a part of the larger parcel of life cycle cost at the planning and design stage. The techniques of estimating life cycle costs are similar to those used for estimating capital costs, including empirical cost functions and the unit cost method of estimating the labor, material and equipment costs. However, it is the interaction of the operating and capital costs which deserve special attention.
As suggested earlier in the discussion of the exponential rule for estimating, the value of the cost exponent may influence the decision whether extra capacity should be built to accommodate future growth. Similarly, the economy of scale may also influence the decision on rehabilitation at a given time. As the rehabilitation work becomes extensive, it becomes a capital project with all the implications of its own life cycle. Hence, the cost estimation of a rehabilitation project may also involve capital and operating costs.
While deferring the discussion of the economic evaluation of constructed facilities to Chapter 6, it is sufficient to point out that the stream of operating costs over time represents a series of costs at different time periods which have different values with respect to the present. Consequently, the cost data at different time periods must be converted to a common base line if meaningful comparison is desired.
Example 5-17: Maintenance cost on a roadway 
Maintenance costs for constructed roadways tend to increase with both age and use of the facility. As an example, the following empirical model was estimated for maintenance expenditures on sections of the Ohio Turnpike:
C = 596 + 0.0019 V + 21.7 Awhere C is the annual cost of routine maintenance per lane-mile (in 1967 dollars), V is the volume of traffic on the roadway (measured in equivalent standard axle loads, ESAL, so that a heavy truck is represented as equivalent to many automobiles), and A is the age of the pavement in years since the last resurfacing. According to this model, routine maintenance costs will increase each year as the pavement service deteriorates. In addition, maintenance costs increase with additional pavement stress due to increased traffic or to heavier axle loads, as reflected in the variable V.
For example, for V = 500,300 ESAL and A = 5 years, the annual cost of routine maintenance per lane-mile is estimated to be:
C = 596 + (0.0019)(500,300) + (21.7)(5)Example 5-18: Time stream of costs over the life of a roadway 
The time stream of costs over the life of a roadway depends upon the intervals at which rehabilitation is carried out. If the rehabilitation strategy and the traffic are known, the time stream of costs can be estimated.
Using a life cycle model which predicts the economic life of highway pavement on the basis of the effects of traffic and other factors, an optimal schedule for rehabilitation can be developed. For example, a time stream of costs and resurfacing projects for one pavement section is shown in Figure 5-11. As described in the previous example, the routine maintenance costs increase as the pavement ages, but decline after each new resurfacing. As the pavement continues to age, resurfacing becomes more frequent until the roadway is completely reconstructed at the end of 35 years.
5.16 Footnotes1. This example was adapted with permission from a paper, "Forecasting Industry Resources," presented by A.R. Crosby at the Institution of Chemical Engineers in London, November 4, 1981. (Back)
2. This example is adapted from a cost estimate in A.L. Tolman, A.P. Ballestero, W.W. Beck and G.H. Emrich, Guidance Manual for Minimizing Pollution from Waste Disposal Sites, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinatti, Ohio, 1978. (Back)
3. See "Utah Interstate Forges On," ENR, July 2, 1987, p. 39.(Back)
4. This and the next example have been adapted from P.M. Berthouex, "Evaluating Economy of Scale," Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 44, No. 11, November 1972, pp. 2111-2118. (Back)
5. See H.T. Johnson and R.S. Kaplan, Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA 1987, p. 185. (Back)
6. This example is adapted from McNeil, S. and C. Hendrickson, "A Statistical Model of Pavement Maintenance Expenditure," Transportation Research Record No. 846, 1982, pp. 71-76. (Back)
7. This example is adapted from S. McNeil, Three Statistical
Models of Road Management Based on Turnpike Data, M.S. Thesis, Carnegie-Mellon
University, Pittsburgh, PA, 1981. (Back)